Penjelasan Seputar Paracetamol dan Cara Kerjanya

Dari sekian banyak obat anti pilek semuanya mengandung satu unsur utama, yaitu Parasetamol (paracetamol) atau Asetaminofen. Parasetamol sebenarnya sudah ditemukan sekitar 1880 saat ilmuwan bekerja mencari penanggulangan malaria, namun penemuan tersebut masih diabaikan. Pada tahun 1956 perusahaan Inggris Frederick Stearns & Co memproduksi Parasetamol dalam bentuk merek dagang Panadol (saya baru tahu kalo nama ini merek dagang yang sudah lama), dan dua tahun kemudian Panadol Elixir diproduksi sebagai obat untuk anak-anak. Di tahun 1963 paten Parasetamol berakhir dan menjadi nama generik hingga sekarang.

Hingga kini, paracetamol telah berkembang pesat dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan, teblet chewable, eliksir, drops dan suspensi drops yang dikemas khusus untuk bayi dan anak-anak. Umumnya obat ini diberikan untuk meringankan gejala demam, nyeri, dan rasa tak nyaman karena masuk angin, flu, atau karena imunisasi dan pertumbuhan gigi.

Dalam golongan obat analgetik, parasetamol atau nama lainnya asetaminofen memiliki khasiat sama seperti aspirin atau obat-obat non steroid antiinflamatory drug (NSAID) lainnya. Seperti aspirin, parasetamol berefek menghambat prostaglandin (mediator nyeri) di otak tetapi sedikit aktivitasnya sebagai penghambat postaglandin perifer.

Namun, tak seperti obat-obat NSAIDs, obat ini tidak memiliki aktivitas antiinflamasi (antiradang) dan tidak menyebabkan gangguan saluran cerna maupun efek kardiorenal yang tidak menguntungkan. Karenanya cukup aman digunakan pada semua golongan usia.

Selama bertahun-tahun digunakan, informasi tentang cara kerja parasetamol dalam tubuh belum sepenuhnya diketahui dengan jelas hingga pada tahun 2006 dipublikasikan dalam salah satu jurnal Bertolini A, et. al dengan topik Parasetamaol : New Vistas of An Old Drug, mengenai aksi pereda nyeri dari parasetamol ini. Ternyata di dalam tubuh efek analgetik dari parasetamol diperantarai oleh aktivitas tak langsung reseptor canabinoid CB1. Di dalam otak dan sumsum tulang belakang, parasetamol mengalami reaksi deasetilasi dengan asam arachidonat membentuk N-arachidonoylfenolamin, komponen yang dikenal sebagai zat endogenous cababinoid. Adanya N-arachidonoylfenolamin ini meningkatkan kadar canabinoid endogen dalam tubuh, disamping juga menghambat enzim siklooksigenase yang memproduksi prostaglandin dalam otak. Karena efek canabino-mimetik inilah terkadang parasetamol digunakan secara berlebihan.

Paracetamol sebernarnya jarang memberi efek samping yang serius apabila digunakan sesuai dengan petunjuk. Beberapa isu yangmenyebutkan bahwa obat ini terkait dengan asma pada anak-anak juga belum terbukti secara klinis. Hanya kadang obat ini bisa menimbulkan ruam atau gatal-gatal pada beberapa orang tertentu. Penggunaan yang berlebihan dan dalam jangka panjang perlu diwaspadai karena bisa memicu kerusakan hati. Perlu diperhatikan juga beberapa tanda overdosis dari parasetamol misalnya jika terdapat gejala mual, muntah, lemas dan keringat berlebih.


Beberapa poin penting yang perlu dicermati dalam penggunaan paracetamol :

- Hentikan penggunaan parasetamol bila demam berlangsung lebih dari 3 hari atau nyeri semakin memburuk lebih dari 10 hari, kecuali atas saran dokter.

- Bagi ibu hamil dan menyusui, konsultsikan dengan dokter jika hendak menggunakan obat ini.

- Orang dengan penyakit gangguan liver sebaiknya tidak menggunakan obat ini.

- Konsultasikan dengan dokter sebelum mengkombinasi parasetamol dengan obat-obat NSAID, antikoagulan (warfarin), ataupun kontrasepsi oral.

- Penggunaan parasetamol bersama alkohol dpat meningkatkan toksisitas hati.

- Konsumsi vitamin C dosis tinggi dapat meningkatkan kadar parasetamol dalam tubuh.



Paracetamol termasuk aman dikonsumsi tanpa efek candu seperti obat narkotika. Untuk orang dewasa umumnya dosis dikonsumsi sebesar 500mg, bisa dilihat pada komposisi berbagai merek obat pilek kandungan Asetaminofen ini antara 400-600mg selain kandungan lain dalam kadar rendah, tergantung merek obatnya. Meskipun aman jangan mengkonsumsi Parasetamol lebih dari 5 gram (weh, siapa yang minum 10 tablet lebih?) dalam sehari, apalagi untuk seorang pecandu alkohol, malah bisa menyebabkan kerusakan liver.

Jadi, jika anda pilek jangan ragu untuk minum obat jenis ini, karena aman dan anda tidak akan kecanduan, tidak seperti antibiotik yang harus hati-hati (HARUS dimakan habis dosisnya) dan harus atas resep dokter.

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